Working on bionic
What are the big pieces of bionic?
libc/ --- libc.so, libc.a
The C library. Stuff like
libm/ --- libm.so, libm.a
The math library. Traditionally Unix systems kept stuff like
libdl/ --- libdl.so
The dynamic linker interface library. This is actually just a bunch of stubs
that the dynamic linker replaces with pointers to its own implementation at
runtime. This is where stuff like
libstdc++/ --- libstdc++.so
The C++ ABI support functions. The C++ compiler doesn't know how to implement
thread-safe static initialization and the like, so it just calls functions that
are supplied by the system. Stuff like
linker/ --- /system/bin/linker and /system/bin/linker64
The dynamic linker. When you run a dynamically-linked executable, its ELF file
tests/ --- unit tests
benchmarks/ --- benchmarks
What's in libc/?
libc/ arch-arm/ arch-arm64/ arch-common/ arch-mips/ arch-mips64/ arch-x86/ arch-x86_64/ # Each architecture has its own subdirectory for stuff that isn't shared # because it's architecture-specific. There will be a .mk file in here that # drags in all the architecture-specific files. bionic/ # Every architecture needs a handful of machine-specific assembler files. # They live here. include/ machine/ # The majority of header files are actually in libc/include/, but many # of them pull in a for things like limits, # endianness, and how floating point numbers are represented. Those # headers live here. string/ # Most architectures have a handful of optional assembler files # implementing optimized versions of various routines. The # functions are particular favorites. syscalls/ # The syscalls directories contain script-generated assembler files. # See 'Adding system calls' later. include/ # The public header files on everyone's include path. These are a mixture of # files written by us and files taken from BSD. kernel/ # The kernel uapi header files. These are scrubbed copies of the originals # in external/kernel-headers/. These files must not be edited directly. The # generate_uapi_headers.sh script should be used to go from a kernel tree to # external/kernel-headers/ --- this takes care of the architecture-specific # details. The update_all.py script should be used to regenerate bionic's # scrubbed headers from external/kernel-headers/. private/ # These are private header files meant for use within bionic itself. dns/ # Contains the DNS resolver (originates from NetBSD code). upstream-freebsd/ upstream-netbsd/ upstream-openbsd/ # These directories contain unmolested upstream source. Any time we can # just use a BSD implementation of something unmodified, we should. # The structure under these directories mimics the upstream tree, # but there's also... android/ include/ # This is where we keep the hacks necessary to build BSD source # in our world. The *-compat.h files are automatically included # using -include, but we also provide equivalents for missing # header/source files needed by the BSD implementation. bionic/ # This is the biggest mess. The C++ files are files we own, typically # because the Linux kernel interface is sufficiently different that we # can't use any of the BSD implementations. The C files are usually # legacy mess that needs to be sorted out, either by replacing it with # current upstream source in one of the upstream directories or by # switching the file to C++ and cleaning it up. malloc_debug/ # The code that implements the functionality to enable debugging of # native allocation problems. stdio/ # These are legacy files of dubious provenance. We're working to clean # this mess up, and this directory should disappear. tools/ # Various tools used to maintain bionic. tzcode/ # A modified superset of the IANA tzcode. Most of the modifications relate # to Android's use of a single file (with corresponding index) to contain # time zone data. zoneinfo/ # Android-format time zone data. # See 'Updating tzdata' later.
Adding system calls
Adding a system call usually involves:
Updating kernel header files
As mentioned above, this is currently a two-step process:
This is fully automated (and these days handled by the libcore team, because they own icu, and that needs to be updated in sync with bionic):
If you make a change that is likely to have a wide effect on the tree (such as a
libc header change), you should run
Running the tests
The tests are all built from the tests/ directory.
Note that we use our own custom gtest runner that offers a superset of the options documented at https://github.com/google/googletest/blob/master/googletest/docs/AdvancedGuide.md#running-test-programs-advanced-options, in particular for test isolation and parallelism (both on by default).
Device tests via CTS
Most of the unit tests are executed by CTS. By default, CTS runs as
a non-root user, so the unit tests must also pass when not run as root.
Some tests cannot do any useful work unless run as root. In this case,
the test should check
Currently, the list of bionic CTS tests is generated at build time by running a host version of the test executable and dumping the list of all tests. In order for this to continue to work, all architectures must have the same number of tests, and the host version of the executable must also have the same number of tests.
Running the gtests directly is orders of magnitude faster than using CTS, but in cases where you really have to run CTS:
The host tests require that you have
You can supply gtest flags as extra arguments to this script.
As a way to check that our tests do in fact test the correct behavior (and not just the behavior we think is correct), it is possible to run the tests against the host's glibc.
Gathering test coverage
For either host or target coverage, you must first:
Coverage from device tests
Coverage from host tests
First, build and run the host tests as usual (see above).
The coverage report is now available at
Running the benchmarks
You can use
See the "Host tests" section of "Running the tests" above.
Attaching GDB to the tests
Bionic's test runner will run each test in its own process by default to prevent tests failures from impacting other tests. This also has the added benefit of running them in parallel, so they are much faster.
However, this also makes it difficult to run the tests under GDB. To prevent
each test from being forked, run the tests with the flag
32-bit ABI bugs